Teacher Immediacy

Effect Size d= 0.16  (Hattie's Rank=115)

One meta-analysis was used:
Allen, M., Witt, P., & Wheeless, L., (2006). The Role of Teacher Immediacy as a Motivational Factor in Student Learning.Communication Education, 55(1), 21-31.

The paper describes Teacher Immediacy as a set of behaviours creating a perception of physical and psychological closeness (p21).

Intuitively, you would think that teacher's displaying those behaviours would be able to get the best out of their students. However, the low effect size challenges that idea.

Another confounding issue is that teacher immediacy would also be involved in the more general influence, 'teacher-student' relationships, yet this has a high effect size = 0.72.

The research completed was on college students over 4 years and was not a true experiment but another correlation study. In fact, it was two different correlation studies: 1. Teacher Immediacy and Affective Learning (attitude, motivation, etc.) and 2. Affective Learning and Cognitive Learning (recall, understanding, etc.) (p26).


Teacher Immediacy was not directly correlated with Cognitive Learning, but rather via Affective Learning.

Hattie uses the lower value r = 0.08 to derive his effect size d = 0.16. Using correlation in place of a true experiment to derive an effect size is not very reliable, and to use a correlation via another correlation is even less reliable.